Inevitably, editors of Romeo and Juliet have to choose between various spatial arrangements of the verse in this passage, and just as inevitably that spatial arrangement carries meaning, encouraging a certain interpretation over another.
With slight variations much of English literature up until the 20th century depicts the Jew as "a monied, cruel, lecherous, avaricious outsider tolerated only because of his golden hoard".
There are various reasons why editors may consider emendation necessary. Bassanio, a young Venetian of noble rank, wishes to woo the beautiful and wealthy heiress Portia of Belmont.
This might include psychology, cognitive science, theology, linguistics, phenomenology, metaphysics, ecology, history, political theory; it can mean other art forms such as music, sculpture, painting, dance; it can mean the critical writing itself becomes a creative act.
This results in a travesty; the modernization of his spelling, by contrast, is a serious scholarly task. He has insulted the Jew and spat on him, yet he comes with hypocritical politeness to borrow money of him.
Indeed, the paratext, meaning the editorial apparatus, usually takes up more space than the text.
Yet the most important difference between Q2 and F1 does not reside in question marks and commas but in the way the words are grouped. In The Tempest, following the masque, Ferdinand exclaims: What complicates matters is that rhymed verse in this passage is in fact not confined to the first fourteen lines of dialogue between Romeo and Juliet.
What the difference reveals is that editors do not seem to agree on what, in theory, constitutes a scene. Act 2 Scene 3 in Macbeth begins with the Porters prose, but after his exit and Macbeth's entrance, modern editions arrange the lines as follows: If editors adhere to this view, they have no reason to cut up the battle into several mini-scenes, consisting of as few as fourteen, ten, or even six lines Oxford Complete Works.
A detailed bibliography on the issues raised by "Shakespeare and Feminism" concludes the thesis. Other solutions seem equally possible and may be adopted by future editors: Whereas special layout to signal rhyme is relatively rare in modern editions, act and scene division is a standard feature.
Act 4, in a division which Rowe took over from the Sixth Quarto ofbegins after Hamlet exits with the body of the dead Polonius, and before the King enters with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern.
Yet it is not, which is why 'The despair voiced by some writers about the very possibility of editing, a despair which has led to this theory of "unediting", seems too pessimistic'.
Appellations often fluctuate between name and title: As I wish to address a range of issues with which editors engage in the preparation of a modern edition, my ambition is not to examine any of these issues comprehensively but instead to provide a survey of some of the most important forms editorial collaboration with Shakespeare can take.
By doing so, the editor risks effacing or at least relegating to footnotes potentially important meaning inherent in the original editions,97 but the convenience of a single label rather than a confusing multitude is understandably the dominant consideration for Shakespeare's modern editors.
What this effectively means is a distrust of really thinking, and a disdain for anything that might unsettle conventional assumptions, particularly through crossing or re-drafting formal, political, or theoretical boundaries.
Particular emphasis is given to the position taken by Juliet Dusinberre who ventures to claim that Shakespeare is close to being a kind of Elizabethan feminist.
As a result, many of todays leading Shakespeareans have become editors. We want to open up the sorts of thinking - and thinkers - that might help us get at what Shakespeare is doing or why Shakespeare matters.
The Second Quarto and First Folio similarly disagree on the punctuation in one of Hamlet's famous speeches, and the editor's decision of how to punctuate has important repercussions on what sense readers make of the speech. The character most modern editions call 'Puck' is sometimes called 'Robin' Goodfellow.
He identifies himself as Balthazar, a young male "doctor of the law", bearing a letter of recommendation to the Duke from the learned lawyer Bellario. Ronald McKerrow91 pointed out long ago that the transition from '4. But there are numerous passages with short or long lines that do not conform to this pattern.
If a speech originally printed as prose conforms to straightforward blank verse, modern editors will lose little sleep over it, but other passages pose greater difficulty. Similarly, when the beginning of line 2 in Sonnet repeats the words of the end of line 1, editors agree that emendation is necessary: Q l Othello is the first to note breaks, at the beginning of acts 2 'Actus.
And what should they do when a word can be modernized in more than one way? Here and elsewhere, modern editors decisively shape Shakespeare's play texts by deciding how to punctuate them. It is a convenient simplification to think that Shakespeare wrote the thirty-six plays published in the First Folio inor to think that he wrote these plays plus Pericles.
George Walton Williams has recently urged editors to adopt a solution which corresponds to none of those mentioned above, namely to divide Act 5 into seven scenes, like the Folio, but with a final scene break that is different from the Folio s.
Their first encounter is usually considered the one 34 Shakespeare's Modern Collaborators exception to this pattern, the one moment in which the intensity of their love is not overshadowed by premonitions of their deaths.
Whereas editors still took for granted certain knowledge of the Bible and the classics a few generations ago, they can no longer do so today.The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare Merchant of Venice: Cast of Characters. Additional Information Year Published: William Shakespeare, "Merchant of Venice: Cast of Characters," The Merchant of Venice, Lit2Go Edition, (), accessed September 05, It sure does feel as if William Shakespeare is prejudiced against Jews in The Merchant of Venice, and there was a strong anti-Jewish sentiment in Shakespeare's England; however, a careful reading.
For instance, in The Merchant of Venice, Shylock says about Antonio that 'hee was wont to lende money for a Christian cursie' (Ql, E2v, ), the last word. The feminist critical perspective examines the roles that women play in literary works and their true significance to the text.
Their roles are usually decided on by the society or time period in which the story is set. Magnificoes of Venice, Officers of the Court of Justice, Gaoler, Servants to Portia, and other Attendants. Scene Partly at Venice, and partly at Belmont, the seat of. Male bonding and the myth of women's deception in Shakespeare's plays, by Shirley Nelson Garner Page Page Page Page The personal shakespeare: three clues, by William Kerrigan Page Page Page Page Page Shakespea his society, possibly as a from early plays to late, from analysis of Shake.Download